Breast Cancer (kanker payudara)

Limited resource settings with weak health systems where breast cancer incidence is relatively low and the majority of women are diagnosed in late stages have the option to implement early diagnosis programmes based on awareness of early signs and symptoms and prompt referral to diagnosis and treatment.

breastcancer

The two most commonly used screening methods, physical examination of the breasts by a healthcare provider and mammography, can offer an approximate likelihood that a lump is cancer, and may also detect some other lesions, such as a simple cyst 82 When these examinations are inconclusive, a healthcare provider can remove a sample of the fluid in the lump for microscopic analysis (a procedure known as fine needle aspiration , or fine needle aspiration and cytology—FNAC) to help establish the diagnosis. Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity , lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol , hormone replacement therapy during menopause , ionizing radiation , early age at first menstruation , having children late or not at all, older age, and family history. Treatment of breast cancer depends on the type of cancer and its stage (0-IV) and may involve surgery, radiation , or chemotherapy.

The main breast cancer treatment options may include: radiation therapy (radiotherapy), surgery scalpel blades are usually made of hardened and tempered steel, stainless steel, or high carbon steel; in addition, titanium, CERAMIC, diamond and even obsidian knives are not uncommon, biological therapy (targeted drug therapy), hormone therapy and chemotherapy. Stage II. In stage II, the cancer is 2 centimeters or smaller and has spread to underarm lymph nodes, or the tumor in the breast is larger than 2 centimeters but smaller than 5 centimeters and hasn’t spread to lymph nodes under the arm. Kraft noted that “taken together, these risk variants may identify a small proportion of women who are at 3-times increased risk of breast cancer.” Women found to have a number of these smaller risk genetic mutations, then, would likely benefit from earlier mammography screening.

These cases presume a diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer which is removed by surgery and then given adjuvant treatments to prevent a recurrence. Genetic testing and mammography screening (and preventative treatments in some cases) may also be offered to younger women with a strong family history of breast cancer. Stage 4 – Breast cancer cells have spread away from the breast and lymph nodes to more distant parts of the body.

Stage I – The cancer has spread into fatty breast tissue or a few cancer cells have spread to the glands (lymph nodes) – for example, in your armpit (axilla). Chemotherapy, immunotherapies, and targeted treatments are overseen by a medical oncologist if they are part of your breast cancer care. The type of treatment recommended will depend on the size and location of the tumor in the breast, the results of lab tests done on the cancer cells, and the stage, or extent, of the disease.

Stage III breast cancer is also called “locally advanced breast cancer.” The tumor is any size with cancerous lymph nodes that adhere to one another or to surrounding tissue (IIIA). We do not know what causes breast cancer, although we do know that certain risk factors may put you at higher risk of developing it. A woman’s age, genetic factors, family history, personal health history, and diet all contribute to breast cancer risk. Breast cancers in men are more often diagnosed at more advanced stages of disease (metastatic) than female breast cancers, probably because of men ignoring lumps in their breast tissue.

Over the last 25 years, with the support of Avon’s six million independent Avon Representatives worldwide, Avon Walkers, and Avon employees and customers, Avon and the Avon Foundation for Women have donated more than $800 million to breast cancer causes, educated 180 million women about this disease, and funded breast health screenings for nearly 20 million women. Cancers occur when a buildup of mutations in critical genes—those that control cell growth and division or repair damaged DNA—allow cells to grow and divide uncontrollably to form a tumor In most cases of breast cancer, these genetic changes are acquired during a person’s lifetime and are present only in certain cells in the breast.
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